Let’s kick off the new year with another game. This is a little bit more complex than the Memory Game and Rock Paper Scissors clones I implemented in Elm over the past few weeks. You might want to refer to those previous tutorials if you’re not entirely familiar with Elm and how the Elm Architecture works. This is what we’re going to build:

So this is Mastermind! I created this little explanation of the types we’re going to use. Refer back to it as you skim through the code if you need to.

Types

We’ll need some colors to play with:

type Color
= Red
| Green
| Blue
| Cyan
| Yellow
| Empty

Notice the Empty constructor. It has essentially the same meaning as Nothing in Maybe and should make the code much easier to write and understand.

A Combination is just a list of colors.

type alias Combination =
List Color

When the user makes a guess, we’ll encode it with the Guess type. We also need to give back some hints to the user (the black and white pegs).

type Hint
= CorrectPosition
| WrongPosition

type alias Guess =
( Combination, List Hint )

Our model is pretty simple. We have a correct field which is the Combination that the user has to guess. guesses is the list of Guess that the user has made so far and state indicates if we’re still playing or else.

The Playing state holds the current guess (Combination). Notice that, thanks to Empty as a Color constructor, we can have a combination that looks like this [Red, Empty, Cyan, Cyan].

Index is only needed for the UI, it indicates which color in the current combination the user is choosing.

type alias Index =
Int

type GameState
= Playing Combination (Maybe Index)
| GameOver
| Surrender

type alias Model =
{ correct : Combination
, guesses : List Guess
, state : GameState
}

Update

Let’s write some helper functions to generate a list of random colors that we’ll use to create the Combination the user has to guess.

randomList : (List Int -> Msg) -> Int -> Cmd Msg
randomList msg len =
Random.int 0 100
|> Random.list len
|> Random.generate msg

shuffle : List comparable -> List a -> List a
shuffle random list =
List.map2 (,) list random
|> List.sortBy Tuple.second
|> List.unzip
|> Tuple.first

randomCombination : Int -> List a -> List comparable -> List a
randomCombination size xs random =
List.map (List.repeat size) xs
|> List.concat
|> shuffle random
|> List.take size

This is very similar to the random number generation we’ve seen in the Memory Game. I suggest you read that post if you don’t understand what’s going on and/or you’re still struggling with commands and the Elm architecture.

I think randomCombination is pretty cool because it first creates a list of lists in this form [ [ Red, Red, Red ], [Cyan, Cyan, Cyan], …], it concatenates them so we get a flat list and then uses the other list we get as input (random) to generate a shuffled version, of which we’re only interested in the first size elements.

The most interesting piece of this little game is the algorithm that takes a Combination and returns a Guess. I followed the guidelines found on a Stackoverflow post (How to count the “white” correctly in mastermind guessing game), here they are:

1. Make two arrays, ans and guess, with a slot for each color.
2. For each color, populate ans with the number of pegs of that color. Similarly for guess.
3. Add up min(ans[i], guess[i]) for each i. This is whites plus blacks.
4. Add up max(ans[i] - guess[i], 0) for each i. This is the number of whites.

We obviously need to convert them in a more functional style. This will be a good exercise if you find yourself thinking in imperative code and can’t figure out how to write something in a functional manner. Let’s go over each of these steps:

1. Make two arrays, ans and guess, with a slot for each color.

This one is easy, we’ll just create a fixed List with all of our colors.

colors : List Color
colors =
[ Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Yellow ]
2. For each color, populate ans with the number of pegs of that color. Similarly for guess.

Let’s make a function populate that does exactly that. It takes a Combination (either ans or guess) and returns a list of tuples in the form ( Color, Int ). The second value (Int) is obviously the number of occurencies of that color in the Combination.

populate : Combination -> List ( Color, Int )
populate combination =
let
countOccurrencies c =
List.filter ((==) c) combination
|> List.length
in
List.map (\c -> ( c, countOccurrencies c )) colors
3. Add up min(ans[i], guess[i]) for each i. This is whites plus blacks.

We’ll create a function processGuess that takes two Combination (the guess and the correct one). We’ll employ the populate function we just created.

processGuess : Combination -> Combination -> Guess
processGuess guess correct =
let
ans =
populate correct

gus =
populate guess

p ( _, count1 ) ( _, count2 ) =
min count1 count2

whiteBlacks =
List.sum <| List.map2 p ans gus
in
-- TODO...

p is a helper function that takes two tuples in the form ( Color, Int ) and returns the minimum value between the two integers. whiteBlacks is clearly the sum of the blacks and whites.

4. Add up max(ans[i] - guess[i], 0) for each i. This is the number of whites.

I found this to be very much unnecessary. Instead of counting the number of whites, it is much easier to count the number of blacks and then derive the whites by just subtracting the blacks from the total. Finding out the number of blacks is fairly straightforward:

blacks =
List.map2 (==) guess correct
|> List.filter identity
|> List.length

whites =
whiteBlacks - blacks

We’re essentially creating a new list with the result of comparing the two colors at the same index. This will be a list like [True, False, False, False]. All is left to do is to count the True values, so we’ll filter on identity (recall that List.filter expects a Bool so we’re already good) and take the length of the resulting list.

Here’s the function in full:

tag : a -> Int -> List a
tag =
flip List.repeat

processGuess : Combination -> Combination -> Guess
processGuess guess correct =
let
ans =
populate correct

gus =
populate guess

p ( _, count1 ) ( _, count2 ) =
min count1 count2

whiteBlacks =
List.sum <| List.map2 p ans gus

blacks =
List.map2 (==) guess correct
|> List.filter identity
|> List.length

whites =
whiteBlacks - blacks
in
( guess, (tag CorrectPosition blacks) ++ (tag WrongPosition whites) )

Just for reference, we can use it in the update function like this:

case model.state of
Playing combination _ ->
let
isOver =
combination == model.correct

guess =
processGuess combination model.correct

newModel =
{ model | guesses = model.guesses ++ [ guess ] }
in
if isOver then
{ newModel | state = GameOver }
else
{ newModel | state = Playing emptyCombination Nothing }

Super cool!

Wrapping up

The view is fairly simple so I’m not going to touch on that. As always, I encourage you to go through the source code and play with it! You can do it directly in your browser here or on runelm.io. The source code is also available on Github.

I hope you got something out of this, if you enjoyed this article follow me on Twitter and Maybe share it along :)